Types of Diabetes

There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)


Type 1 diabetes is caused by an auto-immune reaction, where the body’s defense system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, the body can no longer produce the insulin it needs.
Type 1 diabetes often develops suddenly and can include symptoms such as:

  • Abnormal thirst and dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme tiredness/lack of energy
  • Constant hunger
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Slow-healing wounds
  • Recurrent infections
  • Blurred vision

People with type 1 diabetes can lead normal, healthy lives through a combination of daily insulin therapy, close monitoring, a healthy diet, and regular physical exercise.


Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in which body is able to produce insulin but it is either not sufficient or the body is not responding to its effects, leading to a build-up of glucose in the blood.
People with type 2 diabetes may remain unaware of their illness for a long time because symptoms may take years to appear, during that time the body is being damaged by excess blood glucose.
There are several important risk factors. These includes:

  • Obesity
  • Poor diet
  • Physical inactivity
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Poor nutrition during pregnancy affecting the developing child


Women who are first diagnosed with Diabetes during pregnancy are said to have Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).